Dendrobium kalya

An outstanding Australian orchid hybrid

Peter Dowling
76 Bowden Boulevard
Yagoona  NSW  2199

The development of Dendrobium Kayla is to some the high point in the development of our native orchid hybrids to date. In recent years we have seen many outstanding examples of this hybrid. This article is as much concerned with the people who were responsible for its development as the background from which the hybrid is derived.  I will attempt to show that those involved in the development of this hybrid had an intimate understanding of the cultural requirements of each species involved and were prepared for a long hard slog.  They were breaking new ground in the future of hybridising Australian native orchids.

This article is in two parts. The first is concerned with the four species which contribute to this hybrid providing basic information about them including the range, altitude, natural environment and descriptions of their racemes, inflorescences and growth habits. The second part investigates the process in which D. Kayla evolved. Based upon available information from the hybridists and those who have grown the various plants over the years.

D. Kayla is a distinctive hybrid which has been developed using three different plants D. fleckeri, two infusions of D. speciosum and one D. jonesii and one D. falcorostrum.  The result had been a surprising high standard across all seedlings produced. The vegetative inheritance is variable. However, there is a remarkable consistence in its round flower shape. Flowering period is late August to early October with sporadic flowering as late as January. Colours range from white, cream, yellows, and pale to deep apricot tones. Flowers vary in size from 20 mm to 45 mm. The labellum is generally flat, being dominated by its D. fleckeri heritage. The labellum colours are also variable. Flower spikes are generally produced from the last season’s new pseudobulbs usually one at a time. The raceme is generally quite thick and vertical with up to fifty flowers beautifully arranged. The habit of the raceme is attributed to the strength provided by D. speciosum var. speciosum ‘National White’
HCC/AOC-OSNSW. Flowers will remain in good condition for up to fourteen days provided the weather remains cool.

The down side of growing this hybrid is attributed to the combination of species in its heritage. D. Kayla is a relatively slow grower, and usually produces only one or two new pseudobulbs each year.  Rarely a mature plant will produce more than one raceme at a time. They resent regular potting, and in general should be treated much the same way in which, D. speciosum var. speciosum ‘National White’ HCC/AOC-OSNSW is grown.

Colin Brandon (Col), of Engadine made D. kayla in 1988 and registered it in 1995. The registration came about from the use of D. Lynette Banks and D. Tweed.

According to Col he used as the pod parent, his D. Lynette Banks ‘Foxtail’ a hybrid he made in 1978 using David Cannon’s D. Eureka and Col’s renowned D. speciosum var. speciosum ‘National White’ HCC/AOC-OSNSW.

The pollen parent was D. Tweed, a cross Col made in 1977 and registered it 1983.  The parents of D. Tweed had two very well known orchids as parents. The pod parent was D. Peter ‘Corrigan’, a plant he acquired from Murray Corrigan in 1975 and pollen parent D. Sunglow ‘Ira’, which he acquired from Roger Bedford in 1970.

D. Sunglow was the result of crossing D. speciosum and D. fleckeri. Registered by David Cannon in 1980.

Pod parent of the cross was D. Lynette Banks, which is D. Eureka cross D. speciosum. D. Eureka, was made using D. fleckeri and D. jonesii also registered by David Cannon in 1980.

D. kayla
made 1988
Registered by
Col Brandon 1995

= D. Lynette Banks
made 1978
Registered by
Banks 1983

= D. Eureka
Registered by Cannon
1980

D. fleckeri

   

X

X

 

X

D. speciosum

D. jonesii

       
 

D. Tweed
made 1977
Registered by
Col Brandon 1983

= D. Peter ‘Corrigan’
Registered by Roger
Bedford 1972

= D. fleckeri

     

X

   

X

D. falcorostrum

       
   

D. Sunglow ‘Ira’
made 1970
Registered by Cannon
(Bedford) 1980

D. speciosum

     

X

     

D. fleckeri

       

This chart reflects the time of its development. As a result D. Kayla, contains the following the parentages of primary species[1];

D. speciosum               37.50%
D. fleckeri                     37.50%
D. jonesii                      12.50%
D. falcorostrum             12.50%

Each of these species is arguably among the most impressive of the Dendrobium species.

The development of D. Kayla has been a very slow process, which has taken the best part of thirty years to evolve. The reason for this is due to the genetic background of each of the species involved.  Each one of these four species has a reputation as slow starters from seed. Each species needs to be a considerable size before they will flower.  In the purist hybridist opinion we probably should not have gone in this direction as one of the golden rules has been ignored i.e. Species should be vigorous growers! As a result they have passed on these traits to their children. The following is a brief summary of each of the four species highlighting in particular the area they grow naturally and factors contributing to slow growth in cultivation.

Dendrobium falcorostrum Fitzg.

General Comments

Commonly called the Beech or Dorrigo Orchid.  According to most authorities there are two plant forms occurring in nature. One is slender and grows to 50 cm in height. The other is short and stocky growing to 15 cm in height. I have seen both types growing side by side on Mount Moonbil, Megan 1042 m, W Rees Rd., Fernbrook, head of Dear Park Creek at 1185 m, and Beaumont’s Road, near Dorrigo. I have noted that the shorter type is often growing in more exposed conditions. Local Dorrigo growers suggest that in cultivation the shorter types often grow to similar heights as the slender form[2]. On the escarpment of Barren Mountain, north of the New England National Park at 1437 m, we find another form growing which is both slender and short with darker green pseudobulbs, smaller flowers, which have distinct purple markings on the back of the petals shortly before opening with fewer leaves seen in the type form.

D. falcorostrum produces from 2 to 5 leaves emanating from the apex of the pseudobulbs. The leaves are ovate from 6 cm to 14 cm long by 1.5 cm to 3 cm wide. Leaves are thin. The flower spikes are often drooping from 3 cm to 8 cm long and carry from 2 to 25 flowers. The flowers are from 3 cm to 4 cm and occasionally to 4.5 cm. Its crystalline flowers have relatively broad sepals and petals, which open widely in most clones. The labellum has a Y shaped ridge and has yellow and purple markings. The labellum is unusual; the front lobe curves downward with a long upward point, forming the shape of a falcon’s beak, hence the species name[3].

Distribution

The southern limit of this species is the southern slopes of the headwaters of the Barrington (Barrington Tops), Hastings, Maclay, and Bellingen Rivers and to the northern limit on the Tweed and McPherson Rivers (Mt. Mistake) in southern Queensland[4]. The western limit is Mt Chalundi, North West of Dorrigo at 1377 m (probably extinct)[5].

Habitat

Found at high altitudes usually above 600 m where rainfall averages up to 1700 mm per year and mists are common all year round. This species generally grows in the beech forests of the cool temperate rainforests, predominantly on the Antarctic Beech (Northofagus moorei) and occasionally on the Hoop Pine, (Araucaria cunninghamii), Coachwood (Ceratopetalum apetalum), on large tree ferns (Dicksonia Antarctica)[6]. In some locations such as Barren Mountain in the New England National Park it can be found growing on rocks. D. falcorostrum grows high on the trunks and limbs of the trees, where the foliage above, protects them from frost and high temperatures in summer. Plants can be found growing in masses along the top of the limbs and often covering the entire circumference of the trunk or limbs of the tree. The size and condition of some plants indicate that they are probably of great age. Human activities such as road building can change the natural drainage, which makes the ground around the rainforest dryer in places. This and long periods of natural low rainfall is causing the Antarctic Beech to suffer from dieback of the crown. This exposes Dendrobium falcorostrum to extremes in the weather, many orchid communities are now dying. Usually in a healthy beech tree it is difficult to see plants from the ground. When you do it is probably because of crown dieback!

Growth in nature

D. falcorostrum is very slow grower in is juvenile stage. Usually in its natural state it will take up to five years to flower. They produce one or two new growths each year in late spring to early summer, which matures quickly. Once growths are about 15 cm long it will begin to flower. At this stage the plant will begin to produce more and more pseudobulbs and the plant will increase at a rapid rate. Due to high rainfall and continual mists the plants are usually wet during the early mornings and afternoons. The plants are attached firmly to the rough scaly bark of the tree; the roots collect nutrients from decaying leaves.

Flowering

Flowering of D. falcorostrum is inconsistent. Some years flowering will be light while it builds up more plant mass, in other years the whole plant will flower. It flowers from late August to early October. Flowers in nature will remain open up to eighteen days provided that the weather remains cool. It requires cool winters to produce good flowering.

Hybridisation

D. falcorostrum has been widely used in hybridisation. It tends to be an unreliable pod parent, better results are usually achieved using the orchid as a pollen parent, as in its natural habitat we see few pods on plants. My experiences in attempting to line breed this species indicate that there could be a high percentage of sterile plants in the wild. If you find a plant that will set pods it will usually do so in abundance. It passes on to its progeny a number of desirable characteristics such as, flower colour, labellum shape, habit of raceme, its vegetative growth as well as perfume. On the negative side flowers tend to have a relatively short life and plants can be difficult to maintain in cultivation in hot dry areas.

Dendrobium fleckeri  

Rupp et C. T. White

General Comments

The pseudobulbs are from 10 cm to 40 cm high and quite thin 3 mm to 5 mm thick. Shorter pseudobulbs will generally remain upright. The taller pseudobulbs can become elongated and drooping. Two or three leaves are borne at the top of the pseudobulbs, oval in shape and are up to 8 cm long by 2.5 cm wide. This species carries from one to four flowers on a
short peduncle. The flowers are thick in texture and usually about 25 mm to 30 mm across and open fully. The flowers emit a musky fragrance and are white, yellow-green or apricot yellow in colour. The sepals are broad at the base and taper up sharply. The leading edge of the labellum is covered with white dense hairs and also bears three keels. Is also known to produce aerial growths[7],[8].

Distribution

The natural range of this species is the south-eastern Cape York Peninsula, extending from the Johnstone River to the Annan River[9].

Habitat

This species grows at the top of mountains in tropical rainforests. It usually grows from a minimum of 800 m up to 1550 m. It is found growing on trees and rocks in areas sometimes exposed to the elements. This region experiences regular dew fall and fog, like D. falcorostrum it experiences foggy periods during the mornings and late afternoons. Even
though D. fleckeri grows in tropical regions it grows at considerable altitude where nights can get quite cold, therefore it can be grown in the cooler regions with ease.

Growth in nature

There are two distinct forms of this species. One is taller and with more slender pseudobulbs. The other is shorter with more robust leaves and pseudobulbs. The more exposed the plants are the shorter the pseudobulbs. Until plants are of sufficient size their early growth is slow. Once their optimum size is reached, growth is quite rapid.

Flowering

The usual flowering period for this species is late August to early January and will often continuously flower for two
months. Flowers last up to fourteen days[10].

Hybridisation

D. fleckeri is sought after as it passes on to its progeny the distinct shape of its labellum, without the dense ciliate margin of the midlobe, The distinct yellow will be passed on when it is used with species that are less dominant in colour for example D. falcorostrum.  As D. fleckeri often produces one to three flowers on a raceme this
characteristic is often passed on, reducing the flower count of the hybrid. Hybrids with D. fleckeri in their background often inherit the characteristic of being very slow starters. On the other hand hybrids are likely to flower as late as January[11].

Dendrobium jonesii Rendle

At the time there were two main types of D. jonesii (known as D. ruppianum) they are D. jonesii and D. sp. aff. jonesii. I understand that David Cannon used D. sp. aff.  jonesii (as D. ruppianum) when he registered D. Eureka in 1980.

General Comments

Pseudobulbs are fusiforme 15 cm to 50 cm in height and 1.5 cm to 4 cm in diameter.  Leaves consist of two to seven close to the apex. The leaves are generally thin and ovate and leathery, from 5 cm to 15 cm in length to 2.2 cm to 6 cm across. One to four racemes are from 15 cm to 40 cm in length, which the flowers do not always open fully. The peduncle shorter than the rhachis and bear up to thirty five congested flowers on pedicels about 2 cm long: The flowers are from 14 mm to 20 mm across. Flowers are white in colour and turn cream as the flower ages[12],[13].

Distribution

The southern limit of D. jonesii is the ranges in the north west of Mackey in Queensland extending to the north
around the Iron Range in Cape York[14].

Habitat

This species grows on trees and rocks on the fringes of sub tropical rainforest and wet sclerophyll forests, and on the
higher tops of rainforest trees: from 150 m to 1400 m above sea level. In open sclerophyll forest this species is commonly found on Casuarina sp. trees, where they receive fairly high levels of light.  When growing on the steep slopes plants receive moisture from the high humidity drawn upward from the valleys below.

Growth in nature

When growing on trees specimens grow into very large plants with up to hundred pseudobulbs. Those on rocks are generally considerably smaller. Plants receive excellent air movement and plenty of moisture during the wet season when the temperatures seldom exceed 30oC and rest during the dry over winter[15].

Flowering

Flowers between July and November during the end of the dry season. Flowers will last up to ten days.

Hybridisation

Generally D. jonesii does not dominate with either its floral or vegetative characteristics. It does however pass on its ability to produce good numbers of flowers. The broad midlobe of the flower’s lip is also often passed on to its progeny[16].

 

Dendrobium speciosum Smith var.  speciosum

General Comments

Called the ‘Rock Lily’ in New South Wales. A large plant with pseudobulbs growing on mature plants from 20 cm to 60 cm in height. The pseudobulbs are thicker at the base than at the top, which contain two to six leathery leaves growing 10 cm to 25 cm long and 4.0 cm to 8 cm in width. Racemes are up to 80 cm long and bearing from 20 to 150 flowers. Flowers
vary from white, to a golden yellow, but generally a soft cream. Some clones are striking as the centre of the petals and sepals are white increasing to cream towards the outer surfaces. Flowers range from 2.5 cm to 4.5 cm from the dorsal to lower sepals, at the end of a pedicle 20 cm to 35 cm long. Petals tend to hang forward in many clones. The labellum tends to be ‘V’ shaped[17].

Distribution

This species has a wide distribution; just south of Genoa in Victoria; north to Bulahdelah in central New South Wales and in the west, on the sandstone escarpment around Rylstone.[18]
Some researchers maintain that this species occurs as far north as the Darling Downs in Southern Queensland[19].

Habitat

Predominantly this species is found sandstone rocks in a multitude of areas that are exposed to frost and severe heat, and on trees from lightly timbered country to high up in rainforest trees. Due to extensive human development of the sandstone areas in its range, the quantity of plants now seen in the bush has rapidly declined over the past fifty years.

Growth in nature

D. speciosum var. speciosum is variable usually depending upon the location where it grows. In Victoria we find specimens that are short sometimes fat stems; on the ranges of the reaches of the Shoalhaven River in places that are somewhat wetter, with lower transpiration of the atmosphere the specimens are taller than the type form
with smaller flowers. The type form usually described from the edges of the sandstone escarpment of the Cumberland plain around Sydney, where they predominantly grow on the eastern side in open forests have medium size pseudobulbs producing both large and small flowers.

The size of individual plants varies considerably from area to area and clone to clone. For example in the Royal
National Park, just south of Sydney we once found large plants with 100’s of pseudobulbs growing in near vicinity of plants of probably similar age but stunted. Early orchid enthusiasts who collected these plants maintain that the stunted
forms continue to be slow in cultivation, whereas the larger specimens continue to grow at a rapid rate each year, given the right conditions[20]. Contemporary growers of this species will recognise that some clones i.e. ‘National White’ have some particular cultural requirements to keep their plant growing strongly. To grow many of our native orchids successfully, growers should acquire an intimate knowledge about the area where a clone originated, along with other factors such as what was it growing on; position faced and seasonal weather etc.

Flowering

Flowers from as early as July to mid October. Will not flower prolifically each year. This depends on the season and the
natural build up of new pseudobulbs.

Hybridisation

D. speciosum var. speciosum has been used considerably in developing new hybrids the extent is beyond the scope of this essay. However, it is not particularly dominant. Using this species with other species within the section Dendrocoryne we find the following evident.

  • Habit of raceme often improved.
  • More flowers per raceme, though less per raceme than on D. speciosum.
  • Will usually pass onto its progeny its narrow ‘V’ shaped lip, midlobe that often is found to fold inward[21].

Two clones of D. speciosum were used in the development of D. Kayla. The clone that Cannons used in the D. Sunglow cross is not known. However Col Brandon used D. speciosum var. speciosum ‘National White’ HCC/AOC-OSNSW as pod parent when he created D. Lynette Banks. ‘National White’ is a well-known clone found by Col in the Royal National Park in the vicinity of the area called Flat Rock. He maintains that D. speciosum ‘National White’ was found in the top of a large rocky area surrounded by dozens of smaller plants with inferior flowers. Col reports that he returned to the area a year or so later only to discover that a fire had been through the area. Regrettably a burning tree fell right into the centre of the original plant and destroyed it.

This is what Neville Roper had to say about ‘National White’ in June 2003. ‘It was introduced to the orchid growing
fraternity by Col Brandon who achieved one of the earliest quality awards with it when it gained HCC, number 297, from the AOC in September 1979. The virtues of ‘National White’ that were acknowledged by the judges on this occasion were:

  • Pristine white flowers offset by the dark purple markings on the labellum.
  • The upright racemes with all flowers well above the leaves, no need for stakes with this one!
  • The very generous flower count that is naturally arranged to form a perfect ‘foxtail’ display.
  • Excellently formed flowers that put their arms (petals) and legs (sepals) in the air to present a flat face to
    the onlooker.

Overall the impression is one of a snow white orchid that has well and truly got its showbench act together. It was further honoured at the Australasian Native Orchid Conference in Wollongong where it was awarded section champion.

‘National White’ has small to average sized pseudobulbs with unique very broad, sometimes almost rounded leaves. It flowers reliably each season and will produce racemes from the secondary eyes under the leaves as readily as it does from the primary eyes. Occasionally it will produce so many racemes that the plant struggles to maintain the effort needed resulting in small, short-lived flowers. It prefers to be grown under shadier conditions than most other rock lilies, possibly because it lacks some pigment or because of its broad leaves. It is also quite intolerant of over fertilising
as several growers who were going to “put decent canes on it” have found out to their regret. Otherwise Dendrobium speciosum var. speciosum ‘National White.’ HCC/AOC-OSNSW is a real gem which should be treated the same as any other rock lily[22].
D. speciosum var. speciosum ‘National White’ HCC/AOC-OSNSW, has some peculiarities, which must be taken into account if you wish to grow it successfully.

Each of the species reviewed have some identifiable characteristics that are similar.

  1. In hybridisation, none are specifically dominant in passing on certain traits.
  2. Each species have a relatively similar flower shape.
  3. Colours are white, cream yellow or apricot (no red or pinks). Pink forms of D. falcorostrum have
    been seen they are quite rare.
  4. All are relatively slow in growing to maturity.
  5. D. falcorostrum and D. fleckeri both evolved in high altitude cloud rainforests of New South Wales and Queensland. D. speciosum var. speciosum is found from quite close to sea level to up to 1200 m and D. jonesii is found 150 m to 1400 m above sea level.

    D. falcorostrum to a high degree and D. fleckeri to a lesser degree resent root disturbance. Requires cold
    winters to flower well. Does not cope with low humidity and hot temperatures well.

    D. speciosum var. speciosum ‘National White’ has particular cultural requirements.

    D. jonesii in cultivation in Sydney should be kept relatively dry in winter and given plenty of humidity during summer.

    The development of D. Kayla has a history going back to the very earliest days of the development of
    hybridisation in Australia. At this stage it is worth looking back at how this development evolved. According to David Cannon after he had produced D. Sunglow, he suggested that in future, hybridists should avoid creating large round flowers, “but rather hybridise them for their own individual charm and character[23]”.

    Dendrobium Eureka

    According to Col Brandon, David Cannon made D. Eureka in 1974, and registered it in 1980, using D. fleckeri and D. jonesii. Flowers are cream, gold to deep apricot and carry the predominant frilled labellum from D.  fleckeri[24]. The introduction by D. jonesii produced a flower count up to twenty flowers on very erect racemes.  Vegetatively and florally hybrids are relatively midway between the parent species[25].

    Dendrobium Peter

    D. Peter was registered as D. fleckeri x D. falcorostrum registered by Roger Bedford on behalf of David Cannon in 1972. David used a crystalline white D. falcorostrum, which grew vigorously and flowered profusely.  The result was a hybrid which vegetatively the progeny are relatively midway between its parent species. The
    colour of the flowers was generally a soft golden yellow with a striped golden labellum[26].

    Col Brandon acquired a back-bulb of a good quality plant from Murray Corrigan, however the original plant has since died.

    Dendrobium Sunglow

    D. Sunglow was the result of crossing D. speciosum and D. fleckeri and made by Ira Butler in about 1969[27]. After the death of Ira Butler in 1972 the D. Sunglow hybrids were acquired by Roger Bedford, and registered by David Cannon (Bedford) in 1980.
    Col acquired his plant of D. Sunglow in 1973, indirectly from Roger Bedford, when the plant was about four years old, and called it ‘Ira’ after its hybridist. This is what David said about his recently registered hybrid in 1980.’Very few seedlings were raised but the flowering has made it worthwhile. D. Sunglow flowers up to three times a year and has deep gold to apricot flowers with heavy red markings on the labellum and up to nine flowers per spike on early flowering’[28].

    Dendrobium Lynette Banks

    D. Lynette Banks   = D. Eureka x D. speciosum. Col made this hybrid in 1978, using Cannon’s Eureka and D. speciosum var. speciosum ‘National White’. The results were disappointing with few plants surviving to maturity. The first flowering date of his hybrid is unknown. The most notable clone was ‘Snow’ later renamed ‘Fox Tail’.  Subsequent remakes in general produced inferior results. Banks registered the hybrid in 1983.

    Dendrobium Tweed

    D. Peter x D. Sunglow made by Col Brandon on 10.9.1977: first flowering 12.7.1981: Registered on 27.7.1983. The registration included the following description ‘Yellow to cream flowers 40 mm to 60 mm in size. Sepals up to 10 mm. Petals up to 7 mm across. 10  to 15 flowers per raceme’. Col named it Tweed after the River in New South Wales, as at the time there had been a practice to name hybrids after rivers in New South Wales. The first flask of seedlings produced few plants. The seedlings grew well to start with, but due to a heat wave about 1982-83 they received a set back, from which few recovered. The most notable was D. Tweed ‘Big Mother’.  D.
    Tweed ‘Big Mother’ has been used as both pod and pollen parent on a number occasions without producing seed. It is not absolutely certain that ‘Big Mother’ was used in creating D. Kayla. The plants Col used were a D. Peter
    from Murray Corrigan and D. Sunglow ‘Ira’ originally bred by Ira Butler. D. Tweed ‘Big Mother’ has gained two grand champions at combined shows, an Award of Merit and a Silver Trophy – Ira Butler Award[29].

    Awards

    Name of Clone

    Award

    Date

    Owner

    Awarding Authority

    Award Number

    Big Mother

    AM

    19.9.91

    Colin Jon Brandon

    A.O.C.

    1043

    Big Mother

    Silver Trophy

    1992

    ANOS*

     

    * Australian Native Orchid Society ‘Ira Butler Trophy Awards’

    Dendrobium kayla

    D. Lynette Banks ‘Fox Tail’ also known as ‘Snow’ x D. Tweed [possibly ‘Big Mother’] , registered by Col Brandon on 15.9.1995.

    This cross was made in the spring of 1988. Two flasks were produced as a result of this hybridisation. The seedlings grew to maturity relatively quickly, with the first flowering in Spring, 1993. Racemes are upright thick and strong, up to ? cm long and contain up to 15 flowers. The colour of the flowers range from snow white, to creamy white, cream, pale yellow to deep yellow to pale and heavy apricots. The most remarkable characteristic of the flower habit is the remarkable consistency; from the strength and upright habit of the racemes to the quality of the flowers. Arguably up to 95% of all plants flowered since 1993 have been rated very highly. The cross has produced a very low percentage of plants that should be consigned to Otto Bin.

    Below is a listing of a number of awards to various clones of D. Kayla.

    Name of Clone

    Award

    Date

    Owner

    Awarding Authority

    Award Number

    ELIZABETH

    HCC

    18.9.96

    Colin Jon Brandon

    OSNSW

    1536

    ELIZABETH

    HCC

    18.8.96

    AOC

    1981

    MARIE

    HCC

    18.8.96

    OSNSW

    1535

    MARIE

    HCC

    18.9.96

    AOC

    1980

    LONG LAST

    HCC

    10.9.97

    OSNSW

    1587

    LONG LAST

    HCC

    10.9.97

    AOC

    2193

    JOHN

    HCC

    10.9.97

    AOC

    2192

    PERFECTION

    AM

    10.9.97

    OSNSW

    1583

    PERFECTION

    AM

    10.9.97

    AOC

    2191

    NOT NAMED

    ASR

    10.9.97

    OSNSW

    1588

    NOT NAMED

    ASR

    10.9.97

    AOC

    2192

    NOT NAMED

    Certificate

    1996

    ANOS*

    PERFECTION

    Silver Trophy

    1997

    ANOS*

    LONG LAST

    Silver Trophy

    2002

    ANOS*

    TOP CAT

    Silver Trophy

    1999

    ANOS*

    NATIVE 98

    Silver Trophy

    1998

    ANOS*

    TOP CAT

     

    2004

    Henk van den Burg

    ANOS

     

     

    2004

    Dennis Wood

    OSNSW

    • Australian Native Orchid Society ‘Ira Butler Trophy Awards’


    [1] A.N.O.S. Inc., A Checklist of Australian Native Orchid Hybrids, 7th Edition September 1998 p. 18, 24, 26, 29, 33, 212, 309.

    [2] The late Stan Beaumont of Meldrum (1990) and Bill Feeney formerly of Mountain Springs, Megan near Dorrigo 1991-1999.

    [3] Alec W Dockrill, Australian Indigenous Orchids Vol I, 2nd Ed, p. 492.

    [4] Walter T Upton, Dendrobium Orchids of Australia, p. 52-53.

    [5] Alec G Floyd, Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-Eastern Australia, 1989, p. 159-160.

    [6] David L Jones, Native Orchids of Australia, 2nd Ed. 1993, p. 449-452.

    [7] Alec W Dockrill, Australian Indigenous Orchids Vol I, 2nd Ed, p. 484.

    [8] David L Jones, Native Orchids of Australia, 2nd Ed. P. 453, 455.

    [9] Walter T Upton, Dendrobium Orchids of Australia, p. 56-57.

    [10] Ibid, 56-57.

    [11] Ibid, 56-57.

    [12] Alec W Dockrill, Australian Indigenous Orchids Vol I, 2nd Ed, p. 472.

    [13] David L Jones, Native Orchids of Australia, 2nd Ed.  p. 459.

    [14] Walter T Upton, Dendrobium Orchids of Australia, p. 65-67.

    [15] Walter T Upton, Dendrobium Orchids of Australia, p. 65-67.

    [16] Walter T Upton, Dendrobium Orchids of Australia, p. 65-67.

    [17] Alec W Dockrill, Australian Indigenous Orchids Vol I, 2nd Ed, p. 458-459.

    [18] Walter T Upton, Dendrobium Orchids of Australia, p. 65-67.

    [19] Alec W Dockrill, Australian Indigenous Orchids, Vol I, 2nd Ed p. 458.

    [20] I had a discussion many years ago with the late Don Barnham who passed onto me some of his experience of growing Dendrobium speciosum collected many years ago from the Georges River.

    [21] Walter T Upton, Dendrobium Orchids of Australia, p. 164.

    [22] Neville Roper, Dendrobium speciosum ‘National White’ HCC/AOC-OSNSW Not Just a rock lily but a diamond lily! ‘ANOS Port Hacking Group Bulletin’ (October 2003), p. 11.

    [23] David M Cannon, Native Dendrobium Hybridising, The Orchadian, Australasian Native Orchid Society. Vol 6 No 10. December 1980, p. 241.

    [24] David M, Cannon, ‘Native Dendrobium Hybridising’, The Orchadian. Australasian Native Orchid Society. Vol 6 No 10 December 1980. p. 240.

    [25] Shooter Reg: ‘Dendrobium fleckeri and Some Progeny’, The Orchadian Australasian Native Orchid Society, [Vol 10, No. 1 Spring 1990], 27-28.

    [26] Ibid. 27-28.

    [27] Ruth Rudkin. ‘Ira Butler, The Man and His Work’. The Orchadian, Australasian Native Orchid Society. Vol 9 No 11 March 1990, p. 252-254.

    [28] David M Cannon, ‘Native Dendrobium Hybridising’. The Orchadian, Australasian Native Orchid Society. Vol 6 No 10 December 1980, p. 241.

    [29]Ruth Rudkin. ‘Ira Butler Trophy Committee Trophies Awarded for 1992’. The Orchadian, Australasian Native Orchid Society. Vol 10  No 11 Autumn 1993, p. 419.

    References

    Cannon, David M.   ‘Native Dendrobium Hybridising’ The Orchadian. Vol 6, No 10. December 1980: p. 241.

    Edited by J J Betts. Australasian Native Orchid Society Inc.

    Bishop, Tony,   Field Guide to the Orchids of New South Wales, 2nd Ed. Sydney NSW, NSW University Press 2000.

    Dockrill, Alec W.  Australian Indigenous Orchids. Vol I, 2nd Ed. Chipping Norton NSW, Surrey Beatty & Sons, 1992.

    Floyd, Alec G.   Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-Eastern Australia. Melbourne, Inkata Press Pty Ltd, 1989.

    Jones, David L  Native Orchids of Australia, 2nd Ed. William Heinemann, 1993.

    Roper, Neville   Dendrobium speciosum ‘National White’ HCC/AOC-NSW Not Just a rock lily but a diamond [lily]! ‘ANOS Port Hacking Group Bulletin’ October 2003, 11.

    Rudkin, Ruth  ‘Ira Butler, The Man and His Work’. The Orchadian, Vol 9, No 11. March 1990, p. 252-254. Edited by Dr Noel Grundon. Australasian Native Orchid Society Inc.

    Shooter, Reg    ‘Dendrobium fleckeri and Some Progeny’. The Orchadian. Vol 10, No 1. Spring 1990, p.  27-28. Edited by Dr Noel Grundon. Australasian Native Orchid Society Inc.

    Upton, Walter T. Dendrobium Orchids of Australia. Knoxfield, Vic: Horton Mifflin Australia, 1989.

    A Checklist of Australian Native Orchid Hybrids, 7th Edition September 1998,  A.N.O.S. Inc.,

    ‘Ira Butler Trophy Committee Trophies Awarded for 1992’. The Orchadian, Vol 10, No 11 Autumn 1993, p. 419. Edited by Walter T. Upton. Australasian Native Orchid Society Inc.

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